The fields of historic preservation and archaeology developed along different trajectories
throughout the 20th century. Today, they are treated as separate and unrelated disciplines. The
separation of historic preservation from archaeology is visible in preservation law and academic
programs. Traditional views of historic preservation and archaeology assume that the two fields
are so different that they are mutually exclusive. The paradox within this long-standing division
is in the fact that historic preservation and archaeology share the same goals: preserving and
documenting the past.
This paper attempts to clarify why the fields of historic preservation and archaeology
have been viewed as separate and exclusive fields for much of the 20th century. I argue that
archaeologists can work closely with historic preservationists and reconnect the two disciplines
to form a more powerful preservation alliance. The inclusion of the Indian Rest Site
archaeological investigation in Calvert County, Maryland as a case study illuminates how
archaeology is in fact part of historic preservation, and demonstrates how archaeology can be
used to preserve history and heritage in a manner parallel to historic preservation.